Polvos metálicos para impresión 3D

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3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), utilizes metal powders to construct complex components layer by layer directly from digital models. The powders are selectively melted or bound by precision heat sources guided by the CAD model geometries.

Popular AM processes for metals include binder jetting, directed energy deposition, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination, and more. Each requires powder feedstock with specific characteristics to achieve optimal density, surface finish, dimensional accuracy, and mechanical properties.

This guide provides an in-depth look at metal powders for 3D printing, including alloy types, powder production methods, key powder properties, applications, specifications, suppliers, and purchasing considerations when sourcing material. Helpful comparison tables summarize technical data to assist with powder selection and qualification.

Connecting with knowledgeable suppliers of optimized 3D printing powders enables manufacturers to improve print quality, reduce defects, and fully leverage AM benefits like design freedom, faster iteration, and part consolidation.

polvos metálicos para impresión 3D

Alloys for 3D Printing Powders

A wide range of metals and alloys are available in powder form suitable for AM processes:

Sistemas de aleación comunes para Polvos metálicos para impresión 3D

  • Aceros inoxidables
  • Aceros para herramientas
  • Titanio y aleaciones de titanio
  • Aleaciones de aluminio
  • Superaleaciones de níquel
  • Aleaciones de cobalto-cromo
  • Aleaciones de cobre
  • Metales preciosos

Both standard and custom alloys can be sourced to meet specific application requirements in terms of corrosion resistance, strength, hardness, conductivity, or other properties.

Métodos de producción de polvo metálico para AM

Additive manufacturing utilizes metal powders produced through:

Typical Metal Powder Manufacturing Methods for 3D Printing

  • Atomización de gas
  • Atomización del agua
  • Atomización por plasma
  • Electrólisis
  • Proceso del hierro carbonilado
  • Aleación mecánica
  • Hidruración/deshidruración de metales
  • Esferoidización del plasma
  • Granulación

Spherical atomized powders provide optimal flow and dense packing needed for most AM processes. Some techniques allow nanoscale or customized alloy particles.

Key Characteristics of Metal Printing Powders

Las características críticas del polvo para la AM incluyen:

Metal 3D Printing Powder Properties

CaracterísticaValores típicosImportancia
Distribución granulométrica10 a 45 micrasAfecta a la densificación y al acabado superficial
Forma de las partículasEsféricaImproves flow and packing
Densidad aparente2 a 4 g/ccInfluences bed density
Densidad del grifo3 a 6 g/ccIndica la compresibilidad
Caudal Hall25-50 s/50gGarantiza una distribución uniforme del polvo
Pérdida en el encendido0.1-0.5%Low moisture improves printing
Contenido de oxígeno<0,1%Minimizes microstructural defects

Precisely controlling characteristics like particle size, shape, and chemistry is critical to achieve fully dense AM parts with the desired mechanical properties.

Aplicaciones de Polvos metálicos para impresión 3D

AM enables complex geometries impossible through conventional techniques:

Metal 3D Printing Applications

IndustriaUtilizaBeneficios
AeroespacialPalas de turbina, estructurasLibertad de diseño, reducción de peso
MédicoImplantes, prótesis, instrumentalFormas personalizadas
AutomociónAligeramiento de prototipos y herramientasIteración rápida
DefensaPiezas de drones, estructuras de protecciónPrototipos rápidos y tiradas cortas
EnergíaIntercambiadores de calor, colectoresConsolidación de piezas y optimización de la topología
ElectrónicaBlindaje, dispositivos de refrigeración, EMIEstructuras cerradas complejas

El aligeramiento, la consolidación de piezas y las aleaciones de alto rendimiento para entornos extremos ofrecen ventajas clave sobre los métodos de fabricación tradicionales.

Specifications for 3D Printing Metal Powders

Las especificaciones internacionales ayudan a normalizar las características del polvo AM:

Normas sobre polvo metálico para la fabricación aditiva

EstándarAlcanceParámetrosMétodos de ensayo
ASTM F3049Guía para la caracterización de metales AMMuestreo, análisis del tamaño, química, defectosMicroscopía, difracción, SEM-EDS
ASTM F3001-14Aleaciones de titanio para AMTamaño de las partículas, química, flujoSieving, SEM-EDS
ASTM F3301Nickel alloys for AMParticle shape and size analysisMicroscopy, image analysis
ASTM F3056Stainless steel for AMChemistry, powder propertiesICP-OES, pycnometry
ISO/ASTM 52921Standard terminology for AM powdersDefinitions and powder characteristicsVarios

Compliance with published specifications ensures repeatable, high quality powder feedstock for critical applications.

Proveedores globales de Polvos metálicos para impresión 3D

Leading international suppliers of AM-optimized metal powders include:

Metal Powder Manufacturers for 3D Printing

ProveedorMaterialesTypical Particle Size
SandvikStainless, tool steel, nickel alloys15-45 micras
PraxairTitanio, superaleaciones10-45 micras
AP&CAleaciones de titanio, níquel y cobalto5-25 micras
Aditivo para carpinterosCobalt chrome, stainless, copper15-45 micras
Tecnología LPWAluminum alloys, titanium10-100 microns
EOSTool steel, cobalt chrome, stainless20-50 microns

Many focus on fine spherical powders specifically engineered for common AM methods like binder jetting, powder bed fusion, and directed energy deposition.

Purchasing Considerations for 3D Printing Metal Powder

Key aspects to discuss with metal powder suppliers:

  • Desired alloy composition and properties
  • Target particle size distribution and shape
  • Envelope density and hall flowability
  • Allowable impurity levels like oxygen and moisture
  • Required testing data and powder characterization
  • Available quantity range and lead times
  • Special handling precautions for pyrophoric materials
  • Quality systems and powder origin traceability
  • Technical expertise in AM-specific powder requirements
  • Logistics and delivery mechanisms

Work closely with suppliers experienced in optimized AM powders to ensure ideal powder selection for your process and components.

Ventajas e inconvenientes de los polvos metálicos para impresión 3D

Benefits vs Limitations of Metal Powders for AM

VentajasDesventajas
Allows complex, customized geometriesHigher cost than conventional materials
Shortens development time dramaticallyPowder handling precautions required
Simplifies assemblies and lightweightsPost-processing often needed on as-printed parts
Achieves properties nearing wrought materialsSize and build volume constraints
Eliminates expensive dies, molds, toolingThermal stresses can cause cracking and distortion
Enables parts consolidation and topology optimizationLower production volumes than traditional methods
Improves buy-to-fly ratio greatlyRequires rigorous powder characterization and parameter development

When used appropriately, metal AM provides game-changing benefits but requires expertise to implement successfully.

polvos metálicos para impresión 3D

PREGUNTAS FRECUENTES

How small can metal powder particle size be for AM?

Specialized atomization techniques can produce powder down to 1-10 microns, however most metals printers work best with minimum size around 15-20 microns for good flow and packing.

What causes poor surface finish in printed metal parts?

Surface roughness arises from partially melted powder adhered to surfaces, spatter, staircase stepping, and suboptimal melt pool characteristics. Using finer powders and dialing in ideal processing parameters smoothens finish.

Do all metal 3D printing methods work with the same powders?

While there is overlap, binder jetting generally uses a broader powder size distribution than powder bed fusion. Some processes are limited to certain alloys based on melting points or reactivity.

How are mixed or bimetallic powders made?

Prealloyed powders ensure uniform properties but for composites, physical powder blending or specialized atomization techniques provide blended elemental powder mixes.

How long does it take to change powder material in a metal printer?

A full purge and changeover between significantly different alloys requires 6-12 hours typically. Quick changes between similar materials can be under an hour.

Conclusión

Optimized metal powders enable additive manufacturing processes to construct complex, robust metal components with superior properties. Matching alloy chemistry and powder characteristics to the printing method and component performance requirements is critical to high quality results. By partnering with experienced powder suppliers, end users leverage expertise in both powder production and 3D printing processes to develop robust AM components faster and more reliably.

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Correo electrónico

MET3DP Technology Co., LTD es un proveedor líder de soluciones de fabricación aditiva con sede en Qingdao, China. Nuestra empresa está especializada en equipos de impresión 3D y polvos metálicos de alto rendimiento para aplicaciones industriales.

Solicite información para obtener el mejor precio y una solución personalizada para su empresa.

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