티타늄 분말: 생산, 특성,

목차

개요

Titanium powder is a versatile metallic material valued for its unique combination of high strength, low density, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. As a powder, titanium facilitates advanced manufacturing techniques like metal injection molding (MIM), additive manufacturing (AM), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and powder metallurgy (PM) pressing and sintering to create complex titanium components.

Key applications for titanium powder include aerospace components, medical implants, automotive parts, sporting equipment, chemical processing, and consumer products. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of titanium powder, including production methods, alloy compositions, characteristics, properties, specifications, applications, and global suppliers. It aims to assist engineers, product designers, and technical program managers in selecting and using 티타늄 분말.

티타늄 분말

Production of Titanium Powder

Titanium powder is produced using the following primary methods:

티타늄 분말 생산 방법

  • 가스 분무 – High pressure inert gas disintegrates molten titanium into spherical powder
  • 플라즈마 원자화 – Titanium electrode arcs create ultrafine spherical powder
  • Hydriding/Dehydriding – Titanium hydride powder (TiO2) is dehydrided into fine powders
  • 기계적 밀링 – Ball milling breaks down titanium chips into irregular particles
  • 혈장 스페로이드화 – Irregular powder melted in plasma to produce spherical shapes

Gas atomization and mechanical milling are most common, creating spherical and angular powder shapes respectively. Additional screening, conditioning, and blending create application-specific particle size distributions.

Compositions of Titanium Powder

While commercially pure 티타늄 분말 are available, most powders for industrial uses contain small amounts of alloying elements:

Common Titanium Powder Compositions

합금주요 합금 원소주요 특징
CP Titanium99.5%+ Ti뛰어난 내식성
Ti-6Al-4V6% Al, 4% VHigh strength, heat treatable
Ti-6Al-7Nb6% Al, 7% Nb고강도, 생체 적합성
Ti-5555% Al, 5% Mo, 5% V열처리, 기계 가공 가능
Ti-102310% V, 2% Fe, 3% Al높은 강도, 우수한 연성

Aluminum, vanadium, and niobium are common additions to enhance strength and workability. Trace boron, carbon, iron, and oxygen also appear.

Alloying tailors microstructure, hardness, machinability, and other properties while retaining excellent corrosion resistance.

Characteristics of Titanium Powders

Key characteristics of titanium powder include:

티타늄 분말 특성

특성일반적인 값중요성
입자 크기10 - 150 미크론Sintering behavior, surface finish
파티클 모양Spherical, angular, dendriticPowder flow and packing density
겉보기 밀도1.5 – 4.0 g/ccPressing and handling behavior
탭 밀도2.5 - 4.5g/ccIndicator of compressibility
홀 유량25 - 35 초/50g분말 유동성
점화 시 손실0.1 – 0.5 wt%Oxygen and moisture content
Pyrophoricity없음Flammability and handling precautions

Particle size distribution and powder shape significantly impact powder flow, compaction, sintering response, and density of pressed and sintered parts. Apparent density indicates powder compressibility.

속성 티타늄 분말

Key titanium powder properties include:

Titanium Powder Properties

속성Pure TiTi-6Al-4VTi-6Al-7Nb
밀도4.5g/cc4.43g/cc4.52g/cc
인장 강도240 MPa930 MPa900 MPa
수율 강도170 MPa860 MPa825 MPa
신장24%10%15%
탄성 계수102 GPa114 GPa105GPa
경도80 HB334 HB321 HB
Heat Capacity522 J/kg·K526 J/kg·K527 J/kg·K
열 전도성7.2 W/m·K7.2 W/m·K6.7 W/m-K

Alloying with aluminum, vanadium, and niobium enhances strength and hardness significantly. Specific properties depend heavily on final microstructure.

티타늄 분말의 응용

Key applications for titanium powder include:

Titanium Powder Applications

산업용도Key Reasons
항공우주Structural components, turbine blades, fasteners높은 중량 대비 강도 비율
의료Orthopedic implants, dental implants, surgical tools생체 적합성, 내식성
자동차커넥팅 로드, 밸브, 스프링, 패스너Light weighting, performance
화학Tanks, pipes, valves, pumps내식성
스포츠 용품Golf clubs, bicycles, helmetsStrength, tailored mechanical properties
석유화학다운홀 공구, 유정 부품Strength, corrosion resistance

Titanium’s unique properties make it attractive for reducing weight in aerospace components while maintaining mechanical integrity in extreme environments.

Excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance drive usage in orthopedic and dental implants. The ability to tailor titanium’s properties facilitates sporting goods with specialized performance characteristics.

Specifications for Titanium Powders

Titanium powder compositions and quality are defined by various standard specifications:

Titanium Powder Standards

표준범위입자 크기순도화학
ASTM B348Grade 1-4 unalloyed Ti powder-635 mesh99.5%, 99.9%, 99.95% TiO, C, N, H limits
ASTM B801Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder-635 meshTi, Al, V composition rangesInterstitial limits
ISO 23301Additive manufacturing Ti powder10-45 미크론99.5%+ TiO, N, C, H, Fe limits
AMS 4992Aerospace grade Ti-6Al-4V powder-150 meshTi, Al, V composition rangesInterstitial limits

These define acceptable levels of alloying additions, impurities like oxygen/nitrogen/carbon, particle size distributions, and other test methods relevant for different applications.

글로벌 공급업체 티타늄 분말

Many major corporations produce titanium powders along with smaller regional manufacturers:

티타늄 분말 제조업체

공급업체생산 방법재료기능
ATI 금속가스 분무Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-1023, pure TiWide alloy range, large volumes
프렉스에어가스 분무Ti-6Al-4V, CP TiSmall lots, rapid delivery
목수 첨가제Gas atomization, hydride-dehydrideTi-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, pure TiCustom alloys, small lots
AP&C플라즈마 분무CP Ti, Ti 합금Ultrafine 10-45 micron powder
Tekna혈장 구상화Ti-6Al-4V, CP TiConvert chips into spherical powder
Baoji Hanz Titanium하이드레이딩CP Ti, Ti-6Al-4VLow costChinese producer

Many supply both standard and custom alloy compositions. Some provide toll processing of scrap and chips into powder.

Selecting Titanium Powder

Key considerations for selecting titanium powder include:

  • 합금 구성 – Balances desired properties like strength, ductility, hardness
  • 순도 수준 – Affects mechanical properties and microstructure
  • 입자 크기 및 모양 – Influences powder flow, density, surface finish
  • 겉보기 및 탭 밀도 – Indicates compressibility and sintering response
  • 화학적 호환성 – For service conditions like acids or salt water
  • 샘플링 절차 – Representative testing of powder lots
  • 품질 인증 – ISO 9001, AS9100, etc.
  • 기술 전문성 from powder producer

Samples builds and prototypes help qualify new alloys and powders for a given application. Work closely with reputable suppliers to obtain well-characterized titanium powder for optimal results.

티타늄 분말

자주 묻는 질문

What is the benefit of plasma atomized titanium powder?

Plasma atomization produces very spherical, flowing particles typically 10-45 microns in size. This allows excellent sintered density and surface finish.

What causes titanium powder to be pyrophoric?

Pyrophoric titanium powders ignite spontaneously in air. This is caused by extremely small particle sizes below 10 microns which greatly increase surface area and reactivity. Use inert gas handling for pyrophoric powders.

How does particle shape influence titanium powder properties?

Spherical powder flows well and provides higher and more uniform density and mechanical properties. Irregular powder offers better green strength and compressibility but less predictable shrinkage.

What post-processing can improve titanium powder reuse?

Screening, milling, and thermal treatments allow reuse of off-spec powders. Plasma spheroidization converts chips and coarser particles into spherical powder feedstock.

What standards apply to additive manufacturing of titanium parts?

ASTM F3001-14 covers characterization and quality control of Ti alloy powder for AM. ASTM F2924-14 gives standard test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of AM titanium.

Can you 3D print a titanium and steel composite structure?

Yes, some metal 3D printing processes transition between titanium and stainless steel alloys within one part by precise material switching to build bimetallic components.

결론

Titanium powder provides engineers great flexibility to build high performance components thanks to the metal’s unique properties. Careful selection of powder characteristics and close collaboration with experienced suppliers enables optimal results across many critical applications. Ongoing advances continue to expand the capabilities, quality, and cost-effectiveness of titanium powder metallurgy processes.

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