チタンパウダー:生産,特性、

目次

概要

Titanium powder is a versatile metallic material valued for its unique combination of high strength, low density, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. As a powder, titanium facilitates advanced manufacturing techniques like metal injection molding (MIM), additive manufacturing (AM), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and powder metallurgy (PM) pressing and sintering to create complex titanium components.

Key applications for titanium powder include aerospace components, medical implants, automotive parts, sporting equipment, chemical processing, and consumer products. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of titanium powder, including production methods, alloy compositions, characteristics, properties, specifications, applications, and global suppliers. It aims to assist engineers, product designers, and technical program managers in selecting and using チタン粉.

チタン粉

Production of Titanium Powder

Titanium powder is produced using the following primary methods:

チタンパウダーの製造方法

  • ガス噴霧 – High pressure inert gas disintegrates molten titanium into spherical powder
  • プラズマ霧化 – Titanium electrode arcs create ultrafine spherical powder
  • Hydriding/Dehydriding – Titanium hydride powder (TiO2) is dehydrided into fine powders
  • 機械加工 – Ball milling breaks down titanium chips into irregular particles
  • プラズマ球状化 – Irregular powder melted in plasma to produce spherical shapes

Gas atomization and mechanical milling are most common, creating spherical and angular powder shapes respectively. Additional screening, conditioning, and blending create application-specific particle size distributions.

Compositions of Titanium Powder

While commercially pure チタン粉 are available, most powders for industrial uses contain small amounts of alloying elements:

Common Titanium Powder Compositions

合金一次合金元素主な特徴
CP Titanium99.5%+ Ti優れた耐食性
Ti-6Al-4V6% Al, 4% VHigh strength, heat treatable
Ti-6Al-7Nb6% Al, 7% Nb高強度、生体適合性
Ti-5555% Al, 5% Mo, 5% V熱処理可能、機械加工可能
Ti-102310% V, 2% Fe, 3% Al高強度、優れた延性

Aluminum, vanadium, and niobium are common additions to enhance strength and workability. Trace boron, carbon, iron, and oxygen also appear.

Alloying tailors microstructure, hardness, machinability, and other properties while retaining excellent corrosion resistance.

Characteristics of Titanium Powders

Key characteristics of titanium powder include:

チタンパウダーの特徴

特徴代表値意義
粒子径10~150ミクロンSintering behavior, surface finish
粒子形状Spherical, angular, dendriticPowder flow and packing density
見かけ密度1.5 – 4.0 g/ccPressing and handling behavior
タップ密度2.5 - 4.5 g/ccIndicator of compressibility
ホール流量25~35秒/50g粉体の流動性
強熱減量0.1 – 0.5 wt%Oxygen and moisture content
PyrophoricityなしFlammability and handling precautions

Particle size distribution and powder shape significantly impact powder flow, compaction, sintering response, and density of pressed and sintered parts. Apparent density indicates powder compressibility.

の性質 チタンパウダー

Key titanium powder properties include:

Titanium Powder Properties

プロパティPure TiTi-6Al-4VTi-6Al-7Nb
密度4.5g/cc4.43 g/cc4.52 g/cc
引張強度240 MPa930 MPa900 MPa
降伏強度170 MPa860 MPa825 MPa
伸び24%10%15%
弾性係数102 GPa114 GPa105GPa
硬度80 HB334 HB321 HB
Heat Capacity522 J/kg·K526 J/kg·K527 J/kg·K
熱伝導率7.2 W/m·K7.2 W/m·K6.7 W/m-K

Alloying with aluminum, vanadium, and niobium enhances strength and hardness significantly. Specific properties depend heavily on final microstructure.

チタン粉末の応用例

Key applications for titanium powder include:

Titanium Powder Applications

産業用途Key Reasons
航空宇宙Structural components, turbine blades, fasteners高い強度対重量比
メディカルOrthopedic implants, dental implants, surgical tools生体適合性、耐食性
自動車コネクティングロッド、バルブ、スプリング、ファスナーLight weighting, performance
ケミカルTanks, pipes, valves, pumps耐食性
スポーツ用品Golf clubs, bicycles, helmetsStrength, tailored mechanical properties
石油化学ダウンホールツール、坑口部品Strength, corrosion resistance

Titanium’s unique properties make it attractive for reducing weight in aerospace components while maintaining mechanical integrity in extreme environments.

Excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance drive usage in orthopedic and dental implants. The ability to tailor titanium’s properties facilitates sporting goods with specialized performance characteristics.

Specifications for Titanium Powders

Titanium powder compositions and quality are defined by various standard specifications:

Titanium Powder Standards

スタンダードスコープ粒子径純度化学
ASTM B348Grade 1-4 unalloyed Ti powder-635 mesh99.5%, 99.9%, 99.95% TiO, C, N, H limits
ASTM B801Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder-635 meshTi, Al, V composition rangesInterstitial limits
ISO 23301Additive manufacturing Ti powder10~45ミクロン99.5%+ TiO, N, C, H, Fe limits
AMS 4992Aerospace grade Ti-6Al-4V powder-150 meshTi, Al, V composition rangesInterstitial limits

These define acceptable levels of alloying additions, impurities like oxygen/nitrogen/carbon, particle size distributions, and other test methods relevant for different applications.

の世界的なサプライヤー チタンパウダー

Many major corporations produce titanium powders along with smaller regional manufacturers:

チタンパウダー製造業者

サプライヤー生産方法材料能力
ATIメタルズガス噴霧Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-1023, pure TiWide alloy range, large volumes
プラクセアガス噴霧Ti-6Al-4V, CP TiSmall lots, rapid delivery
カーペンター添加剤Gas atomization, hydride-dehydrideTi-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, pure TiCustom alloys, small lots
エーピーアンドシープラズマ霧化CPチタン、チタン合金Ultrafine 10-45 micron powder
テクナプラズマ球状化Ti-6Al-4V, CP TiConvert chips into spherical powder
Baoji Hanz TitaniumハイドライドCPチタン、チタン-6Al-4VLow costChinese producer

Many supply both standard and custom alloy compositions. Some provide toll processing of scrap and chips into powder.

Selecting Titanium Powder

Key considerations for selecting titanium powder include:

  • 合金組成 – Balances desired properties like strength, ductility, hardness
  • 純度レベル – Affects mechanical properties and microstructure
  • 粒子の大きさと形状 – Influences powder flow, density, surface finish
  • 見掛け密度とタップ密度 – Indicates compressibility and sintering response
  • 化学的適合性 – For service conditions like acids or salt water
  • サンプリング手順 – Representative testing of powder lots
  • 品質認証 – ISO 9001, AS9100, etc.
  • 技術的専門知識 from powder producer

Samples builds and prototypes help qualify new alloys and powders for a given application. Work closely with reputable suppliers to obtain well-characterized titanium powder for optimal results.

チタン粉

よくあるご質問

What is the benefit of plasma atomized titanium powder?

Plasma atomization produces very spherical, flowing particles typically 10-45 microns in size. This allows excellent sintered density and surface finish.

What causes titanium powder to be pyrophoric?

Pyrophoric titanium powders ignite spontaneously in air. This is caused by extremely small particle sizes below 10 microns which greatly increase surface area and reactivity. Use inert gas handling for pyrophoric powders.

How does particle shape influence titanium powder properties?

Spherical powder flows well and provides higher and more uniform density and mechanical properties. Irregular powder offers better green strength and compressibility but less predictable shrinkage.

What post-processing can improve titanium powder reuse?

Screening, milling, and thermal treatments allow reuse of off-spec powders. Plasma spheroidization converts chips and coarser particles into spherical powder feedstock.

What standards apply to additive manufacturing of titanium parts?

ASTM F3001-14 covers characterization and quality control of Ti alloy powder for AM. ASTM F2924-14 gives standard test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of AM titanium.

Can you 3D print a titanium and steel composite structure?

Yes, some metal 3D printing processes transition between titanium and stainless steel alloys within one part by precise material switching to build bimetallic components.

結論

Titanium powder provides engineers great flexibility to build high performance components thanks to the metal’s unique properties. Careful selection of powder characteristics and close collaboration with experienced suppliers enables optimal results across many critical applications. Ongoing advances continue to expand the capabilities, quality, and cost-effectiveness of titanium powder metallurgy processes.

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