Refractory Powder Materials represent a specialized class of inorganic non-metallic materials exhibiting extremely high heat resistance used across demanding industries. This comprehensive guide serves technical professionals and buyers understanding all key characteristics of refractory powders – spanning typical composition, critical properties data, manufacturing processes, applications, specifications and suppliers.

Overview of Refractory Powder Materials

Refractory powders comprise finely divided inert non-metallic materials demonstrating exceptional thermal stability, retaining strength and form at high temperatures exceeding 1000°C. Key subclasses include oxides, carbides, nitrides and ceramics.

Critical Attributes:

  • Heat resistance over 1000°C
  • Resist thermal shock
  • Withstand corrosion
  • 高融点
  • Keep structural integrity

Their exceptional capabilities empower performance in furnaces, boilers, kilns, reactors and other extreme thermal environments where traditional materials fail rapidly.


素材役割Wt% レンジ
SilicaBind the matrix0-60%
MagnesiaResist deterioration0-20%
グラファイトIncrease thermal shock resistance0-15%

Balancing key constituents enables optimizing characteristics like heat capacity, insulation, erosion resistance, melting point and cost.

Major Types of Refractory Powders

FusedExtreme purity, withstand over 1800°C
焼結Powder pressing/firing, lower cost
炭化ケイ素Ceramic with high heat conductivity
ChromiteResist slag, metal penetration

Refractory Powder Materials Manufacturing Processes


Properties of Refractory Powder Materials

融点Over 1600°C
密度2 - 6 g/cm3
圧縮強度20 – 100 MPa
曲げ強度10 – 60 MPa
破壊靭性2 – 10 MPa-m^1/2
熱伝導率20 – 100 W/m-K
電気抵抗率10^8 – 10^13 Ohm-cm
最高使用温度1200°C – 2000°C

Balancing requirements like melting point, heat capacity, thermal shock resistance, insulation value, chemical inertia and cost determines selection.

Applications of Refractory Powder Materials

航空宇宙* Turbine Blades
* Rocket Nozzles
* Heat Shields
* Tungsten
* Tantalum
* Rhenium
* High Melting Points (>3000°C) * Excellent Mechanical Strength at High Temperatures
* Superior Oxidation Resistance
自動車* Spark Plug Electrodes
* Exhaust Valves
* Turbocharger Components
* Tungsten
* Molybdenum
* Nickel Alloys
* High Electrical Conductivity
* Wear Resistance
* Thermal Shock Resistance
エレクトロニクス* High-Temperature Resistors
* Capacitors
* Electrical Contacts
* Tungsten
* Molybdenum
* Silver
* High Melting Points
* Low Resistivity
* Arc Erosion Resistance
エネルギー* Linings for Furnaces in Power Plants
* Molten Salt Reactors
* Silicon Carbide
* Alumina
* Zirconia
* Excellent Thermal Conductivity
* High Chemical Stability
* Resistance to Molten Salts
メディカル* Hip and Knee Replacements
* Dental Implants
* Radiation Shielding
* Titanium Alloys
* Tantalum
* Tungsten
* Biocompatibility
* High Strength-to-Weight Ratio
* X-Ray Opacity
化学処理* Reactors for Harsh Chemical Environments
* High-Temperature Piping
* Heat Exchangers
* Tantalum
* Zirconium
* Nickel Alloys
* Corrosion Resistance
* High Strength at Elevated Temperatures
* Excellent Formability
工具* Cutting Tools for High-Strength Materials
* Dies for Metal Forming
* Molds for Glass and Ceramics
* Tungsten Carbide * Boron Nitride
* Diamond Powders
* Exceptional Hardness
* High Wear Resistance
* Low Thermal Expansion
アディティブ・マニュファクチャリング* 3D Printing of Complex Metal Components
* Repair of Worn or Damaged Parts
* Inconel Powders
* Cobalt Chrome Alloys
* Titanium Powders
* High Powder Flowability for Precise Printing
* Excellent Sintering Properties
* Tailored Microstructures for Specific Applications


化学組成The primary building blocks of the powder, typically metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, or ceramics.* Dominant Oxide: Alumina (Al2O3) offers excellent high-temperature strength but lower thermal shock resistance. Silica (SiO2) provides good chemical resistance but lower refractoriness. Magnesia (MgO) excels in resisting slag attack but hydrates readily.
* Secondary Additives: Calcia (CaO) enhances slag resistance, while chromia (Cr2O3) improves wear resistance.
* 純粋さ: Higher purity generally translates to better performance but may come at a cost increase.
粒度分布The range and spread of individual particle sizes within the powder.* Average Particle Size: Finer powders offer superior packing density and surface area for bonding, but can be more susceptible to agglomeration (clumping) and hinder flow characteristics.
* 粒度分布: A narrow distribution ensures consistent packing and minimizes segregation during processing. Broader distributions can be beneficial for filling voids and improving packing efficiency.
* Specific Applications: Processes like 3D printing often require tighter size control for optimal flow and printability.
粒子の形態学The shape and form of individual particles.* 形だ: Spherical particles typically pack more efficiently, while angular particles can create a mechanical interlocking effect for improved strength.
* 表面積: Higher surface area powders offer better bonding potential but can also increase reactivity.
* Morphology Control: Certain applications may prioritize specific shapes, such as platelets for enhanced thermal conductivity.
見かけ密度The mass of powder per unit volume in its loose, uncompacted state.* Packing Efficiency: Higher apparent density indicates better packing efficiency and can reduce material usage.
* 流動性: Powders with lower apparent density typically exhibit better flow characteristics for easier handling and processing.
* Green Strength: Apparent density can influence the green strength (pre-fired) of shaped components.
かさ密度The mass of powder per unit volume after undergoing a standardized tapping or vibration procedure.* Compaction Efficiency: Bulk density reflects how well the powder can be compacted, impacting final product density and properties.
* 多孔性: Lower bulk density indicates higher porosity, which can influence thermal insulation properties but may decrease mechanical strength.
* Material Handling: Bulk density affects how much powder can be efficiently stored or transported in a given volume.
比重The ratio of a material’s density to the density of water.* Refractory Selection: High specific gravity materials generally offer superior heat resistance but may come with increased weight considerations.
* 費用対効果: Lighter materials with lower specific gravity can be more cost-effective to transport and handle.
RefractorinessThe maximum temperature a material can withstand without melting or losing its structural integrity.* 応募資格 The refractory powder needs to exceed the expected operating temperature in the final application.
* Chemical Environment: Certain atmospheres can affect refractoriness. For example, reducing environments can degrade some oxides.
熱伝導率The material’s ability to conduct heat.* Heat Transfer Management: High thermal conductivity can be beneficial for applications requiring efficient heat transfer, such as heat exchangers.
* 断熱: Low thermal conductivity is desirable for applications needing to retain heat, such as furnace linings.
熱膨張The amount a material expands upon heating.* Thermal Shock Resistance: Materials with lower thermal expansion are generally more resistant to cracking and spalling due to rapid temperature changes.
* 寸法安定性: Matching the thermal expansion coefficient of the refractory powder to the substrate material minimizes stress development during thermal cycling.
耐薬品性The material’s ability to withstand attack from corrosive chemicals and molten metals/slags.* Specific Aggressive Agents: Selection should consider the types of chemicals the refractory will encounter in the application.
* Acidity/Alkalinity: Acidic or basic environments can degrade specific refractory materials.
Other Performance CharacteristicsAdditional properties depending on the specific application, such as erosion resistance, electrical conductivity, or wear resistance.* Focus on Needs: Identify the critical performance factors for the intended use case and choose a powder that excels in those areas.
* Trade-offs: Often, there will be trade-offs between various properties. Selecting the optimal material involves prioritizing the most relevant characteristics.

Refractory Powder Materials Suppliers

RHI MagnesitaBrazil, Austria, China
Krosaki Harima日本
VesuviusEurope, United States
Morgan Advanced MaterialsUnited Kingdom, United States

Pricing Estimates

Tabular Alumina$10-30

Economies of scale influence costs – customized compositions and strict quality requirements command premiums.


Unmatched Heat Resistance: Refractory powders boast exceptional thermal stability, enduring temperatures exceeding 1500°C (2732°F) without melting or degrading. This makes them ideal for lining furnaces, kilns, reactors, and other high-heat applications where traditional materials would quickly succumb.Brittleness and Spalling: Due to their rigid structure, refractory powders can be susceptible to cracking and chipping, especially under rapid temperature fluctuations (thermal shock). This spalling can compromise the integrity of the lining, requiring repairs or replacement.
オーダーメイドのパフォーマンス: By carefully selecting and blending different refractory powder types (e.g., alumina, zirconia, magnesia), engineers can create customized material formulations with specific properties. This allows for optimization of factors like heat resistance, chemical compatibility, and wear resistance to precisely match the demands of the application.Complex Installation: Unlike pre-formed bricks or shapes, refractory powders necessitate a more involved installation process. This often involves techniques like casting, gunning, or vibro-casting, requiring specialized equipment and skilled labor to achieve a dense, uniform lining.
Versatility in Form and Function: Refractory powders offer superior design flexibility compared to pre-fabricated components. Their ability to be molded into intricate shapes enables the creation of complex furnace linings, crucibles, and other bespoke refractory elements.コストを考慮する: The raw materials and processing techniques involved in producing high-performance refractory powders can translate to a higher initial cost compared to some conventional refractory materials.
Lightweight Advantage: Refractory powders contribute to a significant weight reduction compared to traditional brick linings. This is particularly beneficial in applications where lighter weight translates to improved energy efficiency, reduced structural load, and easier handling during installation.Potential Health Risks: Certain refractory powder compositions, particularly those containing silica or chromite, may pose health risks if inhaled. Implementing proper safety protocols and using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is crucial during handling and installation.
Enhanced Refractory Properties: By incorporating specific additives or utilizing advanced manufacturing techniques, refractory powders can be engineered to exhibit superior properties beyond basic heat resistance. This can include improved thermal shock resistance, enhanced chemical resistance to molten metals or slags, and even self-healing capabilities for extended service life.環境への影響: Depending on the specific composition and production methods, some refractory powders may have environmental concerns associated with their mining, processing, or disposal. Selecting eco-friendly raw materials and responsible recycling practices are important factors to consider.


Q: What is the difference between refractory powders and refractory bricks?

A: Bricks are pre-formed consolidated constructions, while powders represent raw material feedstocks enabling fabrication of specialty refractory components through pressing/firing or advanced additive manufacturing methods.

Q: Can all refractory powders get 3D printed using AM technology?

A: Yes – binder jetting and directed energy deposition printing proves compatible with most thermally resistant alumina, zirconia and silicon carbide grades for previously impossible refractory geometries.

Q: Which refractory powder offers the highest service temperature?

A: Ultra-high purity fused mullite and zirconia grades reliably withstand over 2000°C for the most demanding furnace, aerospace and nuclear applications where alternatives melt or decompose.

Q: What is the difference between synthetic and natural refractory materials?

A: Natural raw materials like bauxite, magnesite and clay must get extensively processed into precisely controlled powders to achieve the enhanced uniformity and extreme thermal resistance possible with synthetic engineered formulations.


This guide aimed providing a holistic reference on refractory powders – special materials overcoming limitations of ordinary metals and alloys in the hottest, most aggressive industrial environments through exceptional heat resistance. Please connect with an industry expert to discuss tailoring advanced refractory grades to your specific extreme processing needs. The possibilities stretch far.




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